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"How to Roast Meats"
Taking the Guesswork Out of Roasting Meats
It's a little difficult to explain How to Roast Meats since there are so many different ways to actually roast the various types of meats. For example, you could use a conventional oven which is the preferred method or you could use a convection oven, a roaster oven, an electric skillet, a microwave or even a slow cooker (crock-pot). The Meat Roasting Chart below is based on roasting meats in a conventional kitchen oven but any one of the other options can be also used without any difficulty.

Different cooks will argue the point at what temperature should be used for roasting most meats. As you can see in our Meat Roasting Chart, we are suggesting 325° for almost all of the various meat products. Some cooks prefer to start a roast out by preheating the oven to 425° to 450° for the first 15-20 minutes to sear the outside of the roast and then turn the oven down to 325° or 350° to finish cooking the roast. The slower that you cook a roast, the juicier it will tend to be. As expensive as meat has become recently, great care should be exercised in its preparation.

Before cooking your roast, you will need to consider exactly how you are going to roast the meat. The two basic methods are roasting with Moist Heat or with Dry Heat. Moist heat simply means to pour a liquid in the bottom of your roasting pan. Your roast will either be placed in the liquid while cooking or directly above the liquid. This can be easily accomplished by placing a wire rack or a roasting rack in the bottom of your roaster. The moist heat will help to tenderize a roast. This is especially helpful when cooking a less expensive cut of meat that is generally considered to be a dry and a little on the tough side. A pot roast is a good example of cooking a less expensive cut of meat with moist heat. Dry heat is exactly that because no liquid is added to the roasting pan during the cooking cycle.
"How to Improve Roast Pork"
Many individuals will place their pork roasts and hams in a brine prior to cooking to help tenderize the roast, increase its flavor and to make it more juicy. You might be asking yourself what exactly is a brine. A brine is a solution that is created by adding 1 cup of Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt or 3/4 cup of Morton Kosher Salt or 1/2 cup of non-iodized Table Salt to 1 gallon of water. The easiest way to dissolve the salt is to add the salt to 2 cups of boiling water and stir until all of the salt is dissolved. Then add this solution to the remaining 3 1/2 quarts of water. Always refrigerate this solution and make sure it is cold before adding your meat to the brine. Many individuals also add 1/2 cup of sugar (white or brown) to the boiling water as a flavor enhancer. You can be the judge.

Make sure that your pork roast is completely submerged in the brine. Use a container that will not react to the brine, such as a plastic container or bag. Refrigerate the meat while it's in the brine. Thoroughly rinse the roast to remove any excess salt when removing it from the brine. Other ingredients, such as spices, herbs and vegetables can be easily added to the brine to increase the flavor of the meat. You can also replace some of the water with various liquids. Let your imagination be your guide. For health reasons, you should never reuse brine a second time. Always discard after using. Please click here for additional information, which includes basic recipes and brining times.
Oven Temperature Chart
 Very Slow Oven 200° - 250°
 Slow Oven 250° - 325°
 Moderately Slow Oven 325° - 350°
 Moderate Oven 350° - 375°
 Moderately Hot Oven 375° - 400°
 Hot Oven 400° - 450°
 Very Hot Oven 450° - 500°
Meat Roasting Chart
Meat Product Weight Total Time or
Minutes Per lb.
Oven
Temp.
Internal
Temp.
 Beef  
  • Rib Roast with Bone 4 - 8 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
23 - 25
27 - 30
32 - 34
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
  • Rib Roast (Boneless) 4 - 5 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
28 - 30
32 - 35
37 - 39
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
  • Round or Rump Roast 2 1/2 - 4 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
28 - 30
32 - 35
37 - 39
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
  • Tenderloin (Whole) 4 - 6 lb.
Total Time
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
45 - 60
45 - 60
 
425° F
425° F
 
145° F
160° F
 Lamb  
  • Leg 5 - 9 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
20 - 26
26 - 30
30 - 35
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
  • Crown Roast 3 - 4 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
20 - 23
24 - 27
28 - 30
375° F
375° F
375° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
 Pork - Fresh  
  • Boston Butt 4 - 5 lb. 40 - 50 325° F 170° F
  • Crown Roast 6 - 10 lb. 20 - 25 325° F 160° F
  • Fresh Picnic Roast 5 - 8 lb. 30 325° F 170° F
  • Loin Roast - Bone In 3 - 5 lb. 20 - 25 325° F 160° F
  • Loin Roast - Boneless 2 - 4 lb. 23 - 33 325° F 160° F
 Pork - Ham (Fresh)  
  • Ham - Bone In (Half) 7 - 8 lb. 22 - 25 325° F 160° F
  • Ham - Bone In (Whole) 14 - 16 lb. 18 - 20 325° F 160° F
 Pork - Ham (Fully Cooked)  
  • Ham - Bone In (Half) 7 - 8 lb. 18 - 25 325° F 140° F
  • Ham - Bone In (Whole) 14 - 16 lb. 15 - 18 325° F 140° F
  • Ham - Boneless 3 - 4 lb. 27 - 33 325° F 140° F
 Veal  
  • Rump Roast - Bone In 3 - 4 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
30 - 34
34 - 36
38 - 40
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
  • Rump Roast - Boneless 2 - 3 lb.
 Med Rare:
 Medium:
 Well Done:
25 - 30
31 - 35
34 - 40
325° F
325° F
325° F
145° F
160° F
170° F
 Venison  
  • Roast - Round, Rump or Loin 3 - 4 lb. 20 - 25 325° F 160° F
Note: Please do not rely on the approximate cooking times. Make sure that you check the internal temperature to determine when the meat is done. Many roasts should rest for approximately 10-15 minutes after cooking before being carved. This will help to retain juices in the meat.

Article: How to Roast Meats
Author: Ray Zimmerman
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